Russians In Exile – The History of a Diaspora – Appendixes
My e-book Russians in Exile — The History of A Diaspora has been published on this blog for some years now, but it’s also published om my website. Since I do not have the time to update both, I have only updated the e-book on the website, and I will keep doing so.
Hence, if you want to read the updated version instead of the older version on this blog, please visit the website of Russians in Exile — The History of A Diaspora.
On this website you will also find my database of the Russian Aristocracy, an ongoing project, with new additions almost daily. Click here to visit the Russian Aristocracy database.
Thank you very much,
Valerian S. Obolensky
Appendix A: Russian freemasons who escaped abroad
The list below shows that not all Russian freemasons were aristocrats. Moreover it shows what kind of people escaped abroad.
Michael Constantinovich Adamov (1855-1937). Well known lawyer; one of the founders of the lodge `Free Russia’.
Grigori Viktorovich Adamovich (1894-1971). Poet and literature critic; escaped to Paris.
Valeri Constantinovich Agafonov. Writer, professor. Escaped to Paris. Died in 1955.
Mark Alexeevich Aldanov (1889-1957). Writer of historic novels, member of the Social Democratic People’s Party (trudovik). At first he escaped to Paris, in 1940 he emigrated to New York. In 1954 he returned to France.
Alexander Valentinovich Amfiteatrov (1862-1923). Well known novelist and journalist. In 1902 bannished to Minussinsk, because of his sketch The Obmanov Gentlemen, a satire on the Romanoffs. In 1905 he escaped to Paris. Editor of the newspaper Voldzha Rossii (Free Russia).
Nicholas Efremovich Andreev (1908-1982). Professor of History. First escaped to Prague, then emigrated to London.
Evgeni Vasilievich Anichkov (1866-1937). Professor of Literature history, friend of Viacheslav Ivanov and other symbolists. Lived since 1920 in Belgrade, moved to Paris in the thirties.
Paul Nikolaevich Apostol. Commercial Attaché of the Russian Embassy in Paris. He and his wife were deported to Auschwitz, where he died in 1942.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Astrov (1868-1934). Mayor of Moscow. During the Civil War he was part of Denikin’s government. Married to Countess Sophia Vladimirovna Panin.
Nicholas Dmitrievich Avksentiev (1878-1943). Social Revolutionary. Several positions in the White government. Escaped to Paris.
Alexis Ilyich Bakunin (1874-1945). Doctor of medicine. Father of T.A. Bakunin-Ossorgvin, author of a book about the Russian freemasonry in the 18th and 19th century.
Prince Vladimir Vladimirovich Bariatinsky. Playwright and journalist. Husband of the actress Yavorskaya. Escaped to Paris in the thirties.
Peter Lvovich Bark (1869-1937). Last Finance Minister under the Tsar, succeeded Kokovtsov. Escaped to London in 1918, where he became director of an English bank.
Ruben Ivanovich Berberov (1872-1941). Father of Leon and brother of Minas Berberov (who were also freemasons). Director of a bank in Rostov on the Don. Escaped to Paris, passed away in Southern France. Member of `North Star’.
Ossip Samoylovich Bernstein (1882-1962). Well known Grand Master of chess. Lived in the United States. Translated books of Tolstoy, Chekhov and other Russian writers into English.
Ivan Yakovlevich Bilibin (1876-1942). Painter. Escaped to Paris. Became a freemason in 1928 and returned to the Soviet-Union in 1936.
Serge Dmitrievich Botkin. Descendant of the writer Vasili Petrovich Botkin (1812-1869) and Serge Petrovich Botkin (1832-1889), who was the physician of the Imperial Family. Between 1920 and 1936 he was spokesman of the Russian refugees in Berlin.
Marc Chagall (1887-1985). Painter. Freemason since 1912.
Alexander Ivanovich Khatissov (1874-1945). Friend of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Romanoff. Escaped to Paris, where he became chairman of a committee of escaped Armenians.
Ivan Mikhaïlovich Cheraskov. Escaped to Paris and worked in the thirties for Kerensky’s newspaper Dni (Days), and other papers for Russian emigrants.
Alexander Vasilievich Davidoff (1881-1955). Descendant of the Decembrists Troubetzkoy and Davidoff. Escaped to Paris.
Igor Platonovich Demidov (1873-1946). Member of the Imperial Duma and the KaDet Party. Grandson of Vladimir Dahl. Escaped to Paris, where he became Milyukov’s assistant at the Russian newspaper Posledniia Novosti (The Last News).
Nicholas Savich Dolgopolov. Doctor of medicine. Minister of Health in the Denikin administration. Escaped to Paris.
Prince Paul Dmitrievich Dolgoroukov (1866-1927). Member of the Central Committee of the KaDet Party, member of the second Duma. Escaped to Germany in 1916. During the twenties he often crossed the Soviet border illegally, but at one time he was caught and shot.
Prince Peter Dmitrievich Dolgoroukov (1866-1945). Twin brother of Paul. Escaped to Prague. Was surprised there in 1945 by the Soviet troops and executed.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Evreyinov (1887-1972). Well known director, actor, playwright and historian of theatre. Escaped to Paris.
Boris Ossipovich Gavronsky. Good friend of Kerensky. Escaped to London.
Gayito (Georges) Ivanovich Gazdanov (1903-1971). Writer, escaped to Paris.
Alexander Mikhaïlovich Glyukberg (1880-1932). Humoristic poet (pseudonym: Sacha Cherny). He died the same year in Le Lavandou (Southern France).
Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov (1862-1936). Member of the Imperial Duma and the State Council, Minister of War in the Provisional Government. In 1920 he and General Krasnov asked the Germans for help against the bolsheviki.
Moshe Leontievich Goldstein. Lawyer and professor in the University of Moscow. Was chairman of an organization which helped the victims of pogroms. Escaped to Paris. First editor of Posledniya Novosti.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Golovin. General and professor in the military academy. Liberal politician. Advised Kerensky to use General Alexeev’s services. Was evacuated with the army of General Vrangel. Escaped to Paris.
Roman Borissovich Goul (1896-1986). Literary man. Was in 1927 correspondent of a Soviet Russian newspaper in Berlin. Escaped to Paris. Emigrated to the United States in 1950.
Leon Adolfovich Grinberg. One of the owners of the famous antique shop `A la vieille Russie’ in Paris.
Paul Pavlovich Gronsky (1883-1937). Professor, member of the KaDet Party, member of the fourth Imperial Duma. Escaped to Paris. Brother of Nicholas Gronsky, the poet who died in a Paris subway station.
Vladimir Evgenievich Yabotinsky (1880-1940). Well known zionist. Writer, poet, translator and journalist. Founder and leader of the corps of Jewish volunteers who in World War I fought the Turks on the Palestinian front. P.P. Yureniev (1874-1945). Member of the KaDet Party, Minister of Transport. Escaped to Paris.
Kristof Gavrilovich Kafian (1900-1971). Musician. He said that Gurdjiev, who he knew personally, was a charlatan. Wrote on March 21, 1971, regarding the closure of the last Russian lodge in Paris, `Everything has been said! We are exhausted! We have no more to say! We’re all going to die!’
Leontii Dmitrievich Kandaurov. During the government of the tsar diplomat of the Russian Embassy in Paris. After the communists seized to power he stayed in Paris to work for Russian emigrants.
Michael Mikhaïlovich Karpovich (1888-1959). Historian. In 1916 member of a Russian committee which had to buy certain American goods. He saw that the things went wrong in Russia and stayed in America. Became professor in Harvard University.
M.A. Kedrov. Admiral. Minister of the Navy in the Provisional Government (May 1917). Escaped to Paris.
Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky (1881-1970). Lawyer, member of the Imperial Duma, Minister of Justice, Minister of War, Chairman of the State Council and Prime Minister of the Provisional Government. Escaped to France, where he founded the newspaper Dni (Days). Later he emigrated to England, and afterwards to America.
A.A. Kiesevetter (1866-1933). Member of the KaDet Party, historian. Member of the Second Imperial duma. Left in 1918 for Prague, where he died in 1933.
Igor Alexandrovich Kistyakovsky (1868-1920). Member of the KaDet Party, journalist and lawyer. Escaped to Paris.
Yakov Yakovlevich Kobetzky (1883-1946). Journalist. Escaped to Paris, where he wrote the stock market column of the Posledniya Novosti.
Alexander Mikhaïlovich Kulisher (1890-1943). Journalist, escaped to Paris, worked for the Posledniya Novosti, wrote under the pseudonym of `Juneus’. Imprisoned in Germany, where he was murdered by Spanish communists.
Vladimir Dmitrievich Kuzmin-Karavaev (1859-1927). General, professor in the military academy and the university of St. Petersburg. Member of the KaDet Party, member of the first and second Imperial Duma. In 1919 member of the government of North-West Russia (Whites). Escaped to Paris.
Ervant Grigorievich Kogbetliants (1886-197?). Escaped to Paris and later emigrated to New York. Professor of mathematics in the University of Columbia. Invented three dimensional chess.
Alexander Ivanovich Konovalov (1875-1948). Member of the fourth Imperial Duma and the KaDet Party. Minister of Trade and Industry in the Provisional Government. Escaped to Paris, where he became chairman of the board of the Posledniya Novosti. Antonin Petrovich Ladinsky (1896-1961). Officer in the White Army, writer, poet. Escaped to Paris. After 1944 supporter of Soviet communism, deported to the Soviet- Union.
Vladimir Ivanovich Lebedev (1884-1956). Social Revolutionary. Minister of the Navy in the Provisional Government. Escaped to Paris, where he was part of the editorial staff of La Liberté de Russie from 1921 to 1932. Died in the United States.
Leon Dmitrievich Lyubimov (1902-?). Son of the governor of Vilnius. Escaped to Paris. Became in 1945 member of the Union of Soviet Russian Patriots and worked for Soviet Russian newspapers in Paris. In 1948 he was deported to the Soviet-Union.
Josif Grigorievich Loris-Melikov (1860-1950). Diplomat under the tsar in Siam, Sweden and Norway. Escaped to Paris and died in the Russian nursery home of Sainte- Geneviève-des-Bois.
Prince Grigori Evgenievich Lvov (1861-1925). Member of the KaDet Party, member of the first Imperial Duma; from March until July 1917 Prime Minister of the Provisional Government. Was arrested by the bolsheviki in 1918, but managed to escape to the United States.
Nicholas Vasilievich Makeev (1889-1975). Journalist and artist. From 1919 to 1921 secretary of Prince Grigori Lvov; accompanied him to the United States in 1920. Makeev was the second husband of the writer Nina Berberova, who died in 1993.
Vasili Alexeevich Maklakov (1869-1957). Member of the Central Committee of the KaDet Party, member of the second, third and fourth Imperial Duma. Lawyer. In 1917 appointed Ambassador of the Provisional Government in Paris. Stayed in Paris, where he after World War II was criticized for his friendly attitude towards the Soviet-Union.
Serge Constantinovich Makovsky (1877-1962). Son of the well known painter; poet, literary man. Was from 1909 to 1917 artistic director of the revue Apollon, in St. Petersburg. Escaped to Paris.
Manuel Sergeevich Margulies (1868-1939). Lawyer, member of the KaDet Party. During the Civil War minister of the government of North-West Russia (Whites). Escaped to Paris.
Alexander Nikolaevich Naumov (1868-1950). Minister of Agriculture under the tsar. Escaped to France.
Dmitri Sergeevich Navashin (1889-1937). Initially symbolistic poet. Escaped to Paris. Was murdered in the Bois de Boulogne, likely because of his contacts with Soviet Russians.
Nicholas Grigorievich Niedermiller. Lawyer in St. Petersburg. Brother in law of Khodassevich. Escaped to Paris. Was arrested by the Germans. Died in 1953.
Peter Alexandrovich Nilus (1869-?). Escaped to Paris. Painter, writer who belonged to the group of Bunin and Kuprin.
E.L. Nobel, of Swedish ancestors. Relative of Alfred Nobel (the one of the prize). Oil baron in Baku. Moved to Sweden in 1918.
Prince Vladimir Andreevich Obolensky (1869-1938). Member of the Central Committee of the KaDet Party. Escaped to Paris.
Serge Feodorovich von Oldenburg (1863-1934). Member of the KaDet Party, minister in the Provisional Government.
Count Dmitri Adamovich Olsufyev (1862-193?). Member of the State Council. Marshall of Nobility of the district of Komishansk, in the province of Saratov. Escaped to Paris, where he equiped a freemasons’ lodge in his house.
Count Alexis A. Orlov-Davidoff (1872-?). Member of the fourth Imperial Duma. Escaped in 1925 to Paris, where he financed Russian charitable organizations.
Michael Andreevich Ossorgin (1878-1942). Writer and journalist. Escaped to Paris in 1924.
Alexander Arutyunovich Paronian (1885-1947). Owner of a cinema in Paris.
Paul Nikolaevich Perevertsev (1871-1944). Lawyer, Minister of Justice in the Provisional Government. Lived in Paris during the thirties.
Vladimir Ivanovich Pohl. Composer and music critic. Was director of the Russian Conservatoire (Rakhmaninov) in Paris. Husband of the singer Ian-Rouban.
Salomon Lvovich Poliakov-Litovtsev (1875-1945). In Russia journalist of the Ruskoe Slovo (The Russian Word). In Paris editor of the Posledniya Novosti. Died in the United States.
Peter Alexandrovich Polovtsev (1874-193?). In 1905 assistant to the Military Attaché in London, in May 1917 Brigadier General. During the Provisional Government working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Escaped to Monaco.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Poradyelov (1887-1948). Colonel. Friend and bodyguard of Kerensky. Escaped to Paris in 1917. In Paris he was a neighbor and good friend of Nina Berberova and Makeev. When Poradyelov was burried Nina Berberova threw his freemason’s glove on the coffin.
Peter Petrovich Potemkin (1886-1926). Humoristic poet, escaped to Paris. For years his wife had a restaurant in the Latin Quarter.
Paul Pavlovich Riabushinsky (1871-1924). Member of the State Council. Good friend of Sir George Buchanan, the British Ambassador in Petrograd. Escaped to Paris.
Evgeni Frantsevich Rogovsky (1888-?). Held several governmental offices. In 1945 he became director of the Russian nursery home in Juan-les-Pins (Alpes-Maritimes).
Grand Duke Alexander (Sandro) Mikhaïlovich Romanoff. Husband of Xenia, the sister of Nicholas II. Escaped to England and later emigrated to the United States, but returned to Paris eventually.
Yakov Lvovich Rubinstein. Lawyer, chairman of the Duma of Charkov. Former menshevik. Escaped to Paris. Worked as an expert on Russian emigration for the Nansen Committee of the League of Nations.
Vladimir Feodorovich Schlippe. From 1920 to 1924 chairman of the Committee of Russian Emigrants in Berlin.
Vladimir Theofilovich Seeler. Mayor of Rostov on the Don. Home Minister in the Denikin administration. Secretary of the Union of Russian writers and journalists in Paris. From 1948 editor of a Russian newspaper (Ruskaya Misl’) in Paris.
Yulii Feodorovich Semenov. Chairman of Congress of Russians Abroad.
Prince Dmitri Ivanovich Shachovskoy (1861-1939). Member of the KaDet Party, member of the first Imperial Duma. From May until July 1917 Minister of Social Affairs in the Provisional Government.
Prince Grigori Sidamon-Eristov. Escaped to Paris and later emigrated to the United States, where he lived for twenty years. He died in Princeton.
Marc Lvovich Slonim (1894-1976). Journalist, literary man. Escaped to Paris. From 1921 to 1932 editor of the revue La Liberté de Russie, subsequently chairman of the Russian Literary Association. Left after World War II for the United States, died in Switzerland.
Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968). Until 1917 secretary of Kerensky. Escaped to the United States and became professor in Harvard University.
Michael Alexandrovich Stachovich (1861-1923). Member of the State Council, member of the first and second Imperial Duma. Marshall of Nobility of the district of Orlov. Ambassador of Russia to Spain. Stayed in Madrid after the Revolution.
Baron Alexander Feodorovich de Staël. Procurator of the Hall of Justice in Moscow. Escaped to Paris.
Perikles Stavrovich Stavrov. In the thirties chairman of the Union of Russian Poets in Paris.
Michael Ivanovich Tereshchenko (1888-1958). Industrialist from Kiev (sugar). Friend of Alexander Blok, Alexis Remizov and many other Russian writers and poets. Was in March and April 1917 Finance Minister in the Provisional Government and from May to October 1917 Minister of Foreign Affairs. Escaped to London, where he died in 1958.
Ossip Sergeevich Trakhterev. Lawyer in St. Petersburg. Escaped to Paris. Died in Auschwitz.
Serge Nikolaevich Tretiakov. Chairman of the stock exchange in Moscow. Minister of Trade in the Kolchak administration. Escaped to Paris and was shot by the Germans.
Prince Grigori Nikolaevich Troubetzkoy (1873-1929). Brother of Evgeni and uncle of Nicholas, who was a professor in the University of Vienna. In 1916 ambassador of Russia to Belgrade, in 1920 State Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the Denikin administration. Escaped to France.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Chaveishev (1865-1937). Before 1917 he was a senator. In 1920 he joined General Vrangel in the Crimea. After the evacuation of the White Army he lived in Constantinopel (Istanbul), where he published several Russian papers. Emigrated to Paris.
Ariadna Vladimirovna Tyrkova (1869-1962). Literary woman, journalist, member of the KaDet Party. Lived in St. Petersburg, Paris, London and New York. Spouse of Harold Williams, the well known correspondent of the London Times.
Admiral D.N. Verderevsky. Minister of the Navy and Minister of War in the Provisional Government. Escaped to Paris.
Marc Lvovich Vischnitzer (1882-1955). Jewish politician, historian and educator. He escaped to Paris and later emigrated to the United States. Was chairman of the Union of Russian Jews in New York, from 1951 to 1955. Died in Tel Aviv.
Prince Vladimir Leonidovich Viatzemsky. Breeder of race horses. Escaped to Paris, where he covered trotting and racing for the Posledniya Novosti.
Nicholas Constantinovich Volkov (1875-?). Member of the third and fourth Imperial Duma. Escaped to Paris, where he was the financial director of the Posledniya Novosti.
Alexander Maximovich Volkovisky (?-1957). Sculptor. In 1920 member of the board of the Writers’ House in Petrograd. Escaped to Paris.
Vasili Vasilievich Vyrubov. Lived a long time in Paris before 1917. Kerensky persuaded him to come to Petrograd. Good friend of Kerensky. Returned to Paris in 1920 , where he became chairman of the United Russian Freemasons’ Lodges.
Vladimir Mikhaïlovich Zenzinov (1881-1953). Member of the Executing Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. Escaped to Paris, where he was Kerensky’s right hand at the paper Dni.
Evgeni Alexandrovich Znosko-Borovsky. Chess player. Escaped to Paris, where he was the editor of the chess column of the Posledniya Novosti.
Appendix B: Last resting places
Cimetière du Montparnasse, 3 Boulevard Edgar-Quinet, Paris:
Alexander Alyechin (Moscow 1892 – Estoril 1946). 8th division. In his tomb are inscripted the following words, `Russian and French grand-master of chess. World- champion of chess from 1927 to 1935 and from 1937 until his death.’
Lev Aronson (Dominique) (Minsk 1893 – Paris 1984). 6th division. From 1911 to 1919 drama critic in St. Petersburg, after which he escaped to Paris. Founder of the Prix Dominique, for young artists.
Ivan Gagarin (Moscow 1814 – Paris 1882). 27th division. Russian prince, from 1831 official in the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in St. Petersburg. From 1840 secretary in the Russian Embassy in Paris. Founder of the Slavonian Library and later publisher of Russian poetry and literature.
Simon Petlyura (Kiev 1879 – Paris 1926). 11th division. Militant Ukrainian nationalist. As President of the Democratic Ukrainian Republic he fiercely fought the bolsheviki, later also the Whites. He and his army withdrew in 1921 to Poland, and he emigrated to France in 1924. He was murdered in Paris in 1926. More than 1.500 Ukrainians who were residing in Paris came to his funeral.
Jean Pougny (St. Petersburg 1892 – Paris 1956). 8th division. On his tomb is an Orthodox cross. Painter, escaped in 1919. In the same tomb is resting the painter Xenia Boguslavsky (Novgorod 1892 – Paris 1972), to whom he got married in 1912.
Chaim Soutine (Smilovochi 1894 – Paris 1943). 1st division. Painter of Jewish parents, who became famous, especially for his portraits. He became French citizen.
Ossip Zadkine (Smolensk 1890 – Paris 1967). 8th division. Sculptor, who also made gouaches and watercolours. One of his most well known works is the bronze monument Destroyed City (1953) in Rotterdam.
Cimetière de Passy, 22 Rue du Commandant-Schloesing, Paris:
Marie Bashkirtseff (Poltava 1860 – Paris 1884). Painter and writer, who became the idol of an artistic circle of friends in Paris. Was mainly known for her diaries. Beautiful chapel, with Orthodox cross.
Princess Brassova, née Natalia Sheremetyev (Moscow 1880 – Paris 1952). Widow of Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich Romanoff, the brother of Nicholas II. After their secret marriage in Vienna (1911), the couple called themselves `Count and Countess of Brassov’. In March 1917 Michael refused to succeed his brother Nicholas as Tsar, and in July 1918 he was murdered in Perm, by the Cheka. In 1928 Grand Duke Kiril Vladimirovich Romanoff accorded the Romanoff-widow the title `Princess Brassova’. In the tomb also rests their only son George (Prince Brassov, 1910-1931).
Cimetière des Batignolles, 8 Rue Saint-Just, Paris:
Léon Nikolaevich Bakst (Rosenberg) (St. Petersburg 1866 – Paris 1924). 25th division. Painter and stage designer, who became famous by his work for the Ballets Russes of Diaghilev, for which he also designed the costumes.
Alexandre Benois (Alexander Nikolaevich Benua) (St. Petersburg 1870 – Paris 1960). 25th division. Russian painter and stage designer who mainly worked for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. Meritorious art historian and art critic. Worked from 1918 until 1926 as curator of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg and settled down in Paris in 1926.
Feodor Chaliapine (Kazan 1873 – Paris 1938). 25th division. World-famous sing bass, who interpreted the titlepart of Mussorgsky’s opera Boris Godunov. In 1984 his mortal remains were transferred to the Novodyevichi- cemetery in Moscow, which made many fans of him angry. The remains of Feodor’s wife Marie were allowed to stay in Paris.
Serge Liapunov (Yaroslavl 1859 – Paris 1924). 24th division. Piano player and composer, teacher in the conservatory of St. Petersburg. Escaped in 1923 to Paris.
Cimetière Montmartre, 20 Avenue Rachel, Paris:
Antoine-Henri, Baron of Jomini (Payerne 1779 – Paris 1869). 11th division. Swiss general and historian, who from 1813 until 1843 was in Russian military service. He was in 1813 aide-de-camp of Alexander I, and in 1828 commander of a battle against the Turks. He also founded the Russian Military Academy.
Viachlav Fomich Nijinsky (Kiev 1890 – London 1950). 22nd division. Dancer and choreographer who triumphed with Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. In 1953 Serge Lifar brought his mortal remains to Paris.
Prince Peter Tufiyakin (1769-1845). 4th division. Lord Chamberlain of the Russian Imperial court, director of the Imperial theatres under Paul I. When he retired, he went to Paris, where he enjoyed life in any possible way. On the right hand of his tomb is the memorial chapel of Princess Soltikov, née Maria Potochka.
Cimetière du Calvaire, 2 Rue du Mont-Cenis, Paris:
Princess Galatzin, née Barbe Shipov. Died in 1804. Spouse of Prince Feodor Nikolaevich Galatzin (1749-1827), curator of the University of Moscow.
Cimetière du Père-Lachaise, Boulevard de Ménilmontant, Paris:
Princess Demidova, née Baroness Elizabeth Stroganov. Passed away in 1818. 19th division. her husband, Nicholas Demidov, was plenipotentiary minister of Russia in Florence and became rich in the mining-industry. Their son, Prince Anatoli Demidov, also found his last resting place there. In 1840 Anatoli (Florence 1812 – Paris 1870) married Mathilde, a daughter of King Jérôme Bonaparte, but that went Nicholas I down the wrong way, and in 1846 Anatoli and Mathilde were divorced, and for the rest of his life he traveled and collected art.
Mademoiselle George (1787-1867). 9th division. French actrice who in 1807 became the mistress of Count Alexander Benckendorff. Count Benckendorff was the aide- de-camp to the Russian ambassador Peter Tolstoy, and later, under Nicholas I, he headed the gendarmes. Mademoiselle George lived in Russia from 1853 until 1857.
Ivan Yakovlev (1804-1882). 82nd division. Friend of Pushkin. Yakovlev was chamberlain and Privy Councillor to the Russian court.
Felia Litvin (St. Petersburg 1860 – Paris 1936). 95th division. Singer who became famous by her interpretation of Wagners Isolde (1899) and Brunhilde (1902).
Michael Omelanovich-Pavlenko (1878-1952). 88th division. From December 1918 until November 1920 commander-in- chief of the army of the Democratic Ukrainian Republic. He took part in the Russian-Japanese War.
Metropolitan Polycarpe (Peter Sikorsky) (Kiev 1875 – Paris 1953). 88th division. Lawyer and from 1918 until 1920 a high official in the Democratic Ukrainian Republic. In 1942 appointed Metropolitan of the Ukrain-Orthodox Church.
Nicholas Sergeevich Turgenyev (Simbirks 1789 – Bougival 1871). (His tomb was removed in 1980, because his relatives failed to pay the fee.) Decembrist. Brother of the writer and prosaist Ivan Sergeevich Turgenyev. He escaped in 1824 to England, was in 1825 in his absence condemned to death, but Alexander II pardoned him. Although he often visited Russia afterwards, he lived in France from 1832 until his death.
Princess Sophie Troubetzkoy (St. Petersburg 1838 – Paris 1896). 54th division. Her first marriage made her Countess of Morny, and after her second marriage she was allowed to use the title of Countess of Sesto as well.
Alexis Zubov (1838-1904). 68th division. Secretary of State and Governor of the province of Saratov, from 1882 to 1887.
Columbarium (87th division): Isadora Duncan (San Francisco 1876 – Nice 1927). Nr. 9796. American dancer of Scottish-Irish parents, who turned away from the classical ballet, and had a great influence on the European art of dance.
Cimetière de Gagny (Seine-Saint-Denis):
Yuri Terapiano (Kerch 1892 – Gagny 1980). Literature critic and poet. Went to law-school in Kiev. After the White Army was defeated, he escaped to Constantinopel. Some time later he settled down in Paris.
Cimetière de Noisy-le-Grand (Seine-Saint-Denis):
Constantin Balmont (Gumnishchishi 1867 – Noisy-le-Grand 1942). The symbolistic poet Balmont, who escaped to France in 1920, was during the first years of the emigration considered the Nestor of the young Russian poets in Paris, but then he became older, his poetly qualities went downhill, and he fell into oblivion. He died in the Russian old people’s home in Noisy-le-Grand, 26 Avenue du Général-de-Gaulle.
Cimetière de Boulogne-Billancourt (Hauts-de-Seine):
Vladislav Khodassevich (Moscow 1886 – Paris 1939). The seventeen years which this poet and literature critic spent in exile, have been one long, sad period. During the memorial service the writer Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (1899- 1977) called him `the greatest Russian poet of our era’, and a `valuable successor of Pushkin and Tyutchev’.
Leo Shestov (Lev Isaakovich Schwarzmann) (Kiev 1866 – Paris 1938). Existentialist philosopher and essayist, who escaped to France in 1920 and became professor in the Sorbonne.
Cimetière de Clairefontaine-en-Yvelines (Yvelines):
Caran d’Ache (Emmanuel Poiré) (Moscow 1858 – Paris 1909). Illustrator and caricaturistic painter (the Russian word `karandash’ means `pencil’). He became especially known by his drawings in the magazine Chronique Parisienne.
Cimetière de Fontenay-aux-Roses (Hauts-de-Seine):
Alexandra Ekster (Belostok 1884 – Fontenay-aux-Roses 1949). Painter who studied in the academy of arts in Kiev, and mainly designed theatre décors and costumes. She escaped to France in 1924.
Cimetière de Gambais (Yvelines):
Sonia Delaunay, née Terk (Gorodishche 1885 – Paris 1979). Painter and decorator, who graduated from the academy of arts of St. Petersburg in 1905, and settled down in France in 1910.
Cimetière nouveau de Neuilly, 40 Rue de Valmy, Nanterre (Hauts-de-Seine):
Vasili Vasilievich Kandinsky (Moscow 1866 – Neuilly-sur- Seine 1944). Went to law school in Moscow. In 1901 he founded the artist union Phalanx, which mainly organized exhibitions. Successively he founded the Neue Künstlervereinigung and Der blaue Reiter.
Alexander Constantinovich Glazunov (St. Petersburg 1865 – Paris 1936). Composer, pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. Was director of the conservatory of St. Petersburg from 1906 until 1917, and lived in Paris since 1926 in Paris. Glazunov wrote orchestra, chamber and ballet music and became known by his composition Stenka Razin. In October 1972 his mortal remains were transferred to Leningrad.
Cimetière de Avon (Seine-et-Marne):
Georges (Grigori) Gurdjiev (Alexandropol 1877 – Paris 1949). Controversial philosopher and writer.
Cimetière de Chelles (Seine-et-Marne):
Nicholas Kalmakov (Nervi 1873 – Chelles 1955). Painter and member of Monde de l’Art. In 1908 his décor of Oscar Wilde’s Salomé, in the theatre of Vera Kommissaryevskaya in St. Petersburg, caused an enormous fuss, and the play was prohibited the same evening. He died under miserable circumstances in a nursing home in Chelles.
Cimetière Parisien, 44 Avenue de Verdun, Ivry-sur-Seine:
Michael (Michael Feodorovich) Larionov (Tiraspol 1881 – Fontenay-aux-Roses 1964), and his wife Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova (Nagaevo 1881 – Paris 1962). Painters. Larionov is the founder of rayonism, which had a great influence on the development of modern art in Russia. Was at first influenced by the impressionism and the neo- impressionism. Goncharova also kept herself busy with rayonisme. In 1914 the `couple’ settled down in Paris, to design décors and costumes for Diaghilevs Ballets Russes, but they didn’t get married until 1955. After Natalia’s death Larionov married Alexandra Tomilin, who died in 1987, and was cremated. Her ashes joined the mortal remains of Larionov and Goncharova, in their grave.
église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Rue Léo-Lagrange, St.e-Geneviève-des-Bois (Essonne).
In the crypt are burried:
Albert Benois (1870-1970), the architect of the church, and his spouse Marguerite Benois, née Novinsky (1891-1974).
Archbishop Cassien (Serge Bezobrazov) (1892-1965). Rector of the Russian-Orthodox Institute Saint-Serge in Paris.
Metropolitan Evlogi (Vasili Grigorievsky) (Somovo 1898 – Paris 1946). He was a member of the second and third Duma, and in 1922 he was appointed Metropolitan.
Archbishop Grigori (Tarassov) (Voronej 1893 – Paris 1981). Chemistry-engineer. He was sent to France in 1916, where he became a pilot and flew for the French airforce. In 1953 he succeeded Metropolitan Vladimir.
Countess Olga Kokovtsov (1860-1950) and Countess Olga Malevsky-Malevich (1868-1944). These two Olga’s have gathered the money for the construction of the church.
Count Vladimir Kokovtsov (Novgorod 1853 – Paris 1943). From 1904 until 1914 Kokovtsov was Secretary of the Treasury. After Stolypin’s assassination he was chairman of the council of ministers, from 1911 to 1914. He escaped to France in November 1918.
The Reverend Father Alexis Medvedkov (1867-1934). He died of cancer and was burried in the cemetery of Ugine, but when this closed down a couple of years later, his mortal remains were transferred to Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, where they found out that his body was still completely intact.
Archpriest Grigori Spassky (1877-1934). Until the Revolution navy chaplain in the Russian Black-Sea fleet, after which he was appointed archfather of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris.
Archpriest Dmitri Troyitsky (1886-1939). First archfather of the Saint-Nicolas-le-Thaumaturge in the Russian House of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois.
Metropolitan Vladimir (Viacheslav Tikhonitsky) (1872- 1959). Studied theology in the seminary of Kazan. Worked in Nice from 1925 to 1945. In 1946 he succeeded Metropolitan Evlogi, and he performed this task until his death, December 18, 1959.
In the cemetery of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, right behind the Russian-Orthodox church, one finds the graves of about ten thousand Russians, among them the following persons:
André Alexeevich Amalrik (Moscow 1938 – Guadalajara 1980). Tomb 483, plan I. Historian and writer.
Alexander Bernardi (Odessa 1867 – Ermont 1943). Tomb 697, plan I. Musician, singing-master in the Conservatoire Rakhmaninov.
Afrikan Bogaevsky (1872-1934). Tomb 8214, plan IV. Lieutenant-General, decorated for his courage in the Battle of Tarnopol in 1917. Was commander of a regiment of partizans and successively of a brigade of the White Army. In February promoted ataman of the Don-Cossacks. His predecessor, General Krasnov, ranged on the side of the Germans in World War II, and was executed in the Soviet- Union after the war.
Archpriest Serge Bulgakov (Livny 1871 – Paris 1944). Tomb 579, plan I. Theologist and former Marxist. Was expelled from the Soviet-Union in 1923, and was one of the first professors in the Russian-Orthodox Institute of Paris.
Ivan Alexeevich Bunin (Voronej 1870 – Paris 1953). Tomb 2961, plan II. Writer and poet. Escaped in 1920 to France. His wife, Vera Muromtsev, is resting in the same grave. They were a couple since 1907, and they married in 1922. In 1934 Bunin won the Nobel Literature Prize, and he became particularly known by The Village (1910), A Gentleman from San Francisco (1915) and The life of Arsenyev (1933).
Tatiana Botkin. Daughter of Dr Evgeni Botkin, the last personal physician of the Tsar. Tatiana and her brother Gleb joined their father in his voluntarily bannishment with the Imperial Family in Siberia.
Nicholas Nikolaevich Cherepnin (St. Petersburg 1873 – Issy-les-Moulineaux 1945). Tomb 1627, plan I. Composer and conductor. Pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. From 1905 to 1917 he was principal of the conservatory of St. Petersburg, and from 1918 to 1921 he was principal of the conservatory of Tbilisi. Escaped in 1921 and from 1925 until his death he was principal of the Rakhmaninov-conservatory in Paris. Father of the American composer and piano player Alexander Cherepnin.
Boris Durov (St. Petersburg 1879 – Sainte-Geneviève-des- Bois 1977). Tomb 3066, plan V. Lieutenant-Colonel of the Russian expeditionary troops in France and Macedonia. In 1920 he was one of the founders of the Russian lyceum, where he at first worked as a mathematics teacher, and from 1931 to 1961 as principal.
Nicholas Feodorov (1895-1984). Tomb 5004, plan II. Escaped in 1926 from Estland to Paris, where he headed the youth department of the ACER (Christian Union of Russian Students). He was founder of the Union Vitiaz, which has the device, `For Russia, for Faith’.
Alexander Galich (1919-1977). Tomb 8045, plan IV. Lyric poet, actor and drama writer. He put his poetry to music and accompanied himself on the guitar. Because of his critical songs he was expelled from the Union of Writers. He escaped in 1974.
Olga Glebova-Sudeyikina (St. Petersburg 1885 – Paris 1945). Tomb 847, plan I. During the first decade of this century she was an actrice with the Meyerhold Theatre. When he was twenty-two, the poet Vsevolod Kniazev committed suicide because of her; his rival was the poet Alexander Blok.
Count Michael von Grabbe (1868-1942). Tomb 540, plan I. General. In 1916 and 1917 ataman of the Don-Cossacks.
Grigori (George) Ivanov (1894-1958). Tomb 6695, plan III. Poet. In 1922 he married Princess Irina Odoevstseva, and in the same year he escaped to France. He described the miserable circumstances in which the Russians in France lived. In 1963 his mortal remains were transferred from Hyères to Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois.
Paul Yevdokimov (St. Petersburg 1900 – Meudon 1970). Tomb 5462, plan V. Writer and theologist. Studied theology in Kiev, successively in Paris. He was a professor of Theological Morals in the Russian-Orthodox Institute of Paris, and wrote Dostoievsky et le problème du mal.
Prince Felix Yussupov (St. Petersburg 1887 – Paris 1967). Tomb 391, plan II. One of the men who were responsible for the death of Rasputin, on December 30, 1916. In the same tomb is resting his spouse Irina Alexandrovna Romanoff (Peterhof 1895 – Paris 1970). Irina was the eldest daughter of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhaïlovich Romanoff, and a cousin of Nicholas II.
Archpriest Alexander Kalashnikov (1860-1941). Tomb 577, plan I. First priest of the Notre-Dame-de-l’Assomption.
Nicholas Kedrov (1871-1940). Tomb 411, plan II. Founder of the Kedrov Quartet of St. Petersburg.
Constantin Korovin (Moscow 1861 – Paris 1939). Tomb 3182, plan V. Painter and designer of décors and costumes for the ballet and the opera. Teacher in the academy of arts of Moscow. His paintings can be seen in the Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow.
Vladimir Krymov (Dvinsk 1878 – Chatou 1968). Tomb 3067, plan V. Publisher in St. Petersburg. After the February Revolution of 1917 he left Russia helter-skelter. At first he tried his luck in Berlin, but successively he left for Paris. The novels which he wrote in the twenties and thirties, were very much valued by the Russian emigrants, and even translated into English and published in Great- Britain.
André Lanskoy (Moscow 1902 – Paris 1976). Tomb 8764, plan IV. Expressionist painter. He escaped in 1921 to Paris.
Serge Lifar (Kiev 1905 – Lausanne 1986). Tomb 6114, plan III. From 1923 to 1929 dancer and ballet master of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. From 1929 to 1944 leader of the ballet of the Opéra of Paris, from 1945 to 1947 artistic director of the Nouveau Ballet of Monte Carlo, and from 1947 to 1958 once more leader of the ballet of the Opéra of Paris. Serge Lifar was chairman of the Russian Union of Musicians in Paris, and he had a great influence on the development of modern French ballet.
Nicholas Lokhvitsky (1868-1933). Tomb 159, plan II. Commander of the Russian expeditionary troops on the French front in 1916. After World War I he joined the army of Admiral Kolchak in the Far East, and in 1923 he settled down in Paris.
Nicholas O. Lossky (Vitebsk 1870 – Sainte-Geneviève- des-Bois 1965). Tomb 6106, plan III. Philosopher. Epistemological he advocated intuitionism, and metaphysically personalism. From 1916 he was professor in the university of Petrograd. In 1922 he was expelled from Russia. Was professor in Prague, and from 1947 to 1950 professor in the Russian Theological Academy in New York.
Vladimir Nikolaevich Lossky (1903-1958). Tomb 6115, plan III. Theologist. Son of Nicholas Lossky. Author of Théologie mystique de l’église d’Orient.
Prince Grigori (George) Evgenievich Lvov (Tula 1861 – Paris 1925). Tomb 574, plan I. Deputy of the CaDet Party in the first Duma of 1904, from 1914 to 1916 chairman of the Pan-Russian Union of Zemstvo’s and the Red Cross, and from March 15 to July 20, 1917 Minister of Internal Affairs and Prime Minister of the Provisional Government.
Vasili Alexeevich Maklakov (Moscow 1869 – Baden, Switzerland 1957). Tomb 742, plan I. Lawyer and from 1904 deputy of the CaDet Party in the second, third and fourth Duma. In 1917 he was appointed ambassador of Russia in Paris, where he, after the October Revolution, joined the White emigrants.
Serge Constantinovich Makovsky (1877-1962). Tomb 2487, plan I. Art critic and founder of the art- and literary circle Apollon, which from 1909 to 1917 was active in St. Petersburg, and became known by the poetry of Ossip Mandelstam, and the acmeism of Gumilyov and Goredtsky.
Dmitri Sergeevich Merezhkovsky (St. Petersburg 1866 – Paris 1941). Tomb 440, plan II. Writer, poet and philosopher, known by his historic-religious novel trilogy Julius Apostata (1893), Leonardo da Vinci (1896) and Peter and Alexis (1902). Merezhkovsky looked for a synthesis of Hellenism and Christianity, of enjoyment of life and asceticism. Escaped in 1919 to Poland, successively to Paris. In the same tomb rests his wife Zinaida Hippius (Belev 1869 – Paris 1949). Journalist, literature critic, poet and writer, whose’ salon in St. Petersburg was the center of young symbolistic poets. She also escaped in 1919. Most important works: New People (1896), White on Black (1908) and Living Faces (1925).
Princess Vera Meshchersky (1876-1949). Tomb 386, plan I. Founder of the Russian House in Sainte-Geneviève-des- Bois.
Bishop John of Messina (Prince Ivan Kurakin) (1874 – 1950). Tomb 2925, plan II. Deputy of the third Duma. In 1931 ordained priest, until 1949 bishop of the Russian- Orthodox church of Florence.
Alexander Moshukin (1877-1952) and his brother Ivan Moshukin (Michel Shodzko) (1887-1939). Tomb 3299, plan II. Film actors and opera singers.
Viktor Platonovich Nekrassov (Kiev 1911 – Paris 1987). Tomb 2461, plan II. Writer of film scenario’s and novels. His book In the Trenches of Stalingrad (1946) belongs to the best Russian war novels. By his objective view of the Western world, in the book On both Sides of the Ocean (1962), he got into serious trouble with the regime, and in 1974 they forced him to emigrate. He settled down in Paris, where he wrote until to his death.
Rudolf Hametovich Nureyev (1938-1993). Tomb 8328, plan III. Choreographer and the greatest male ballet dancer of all times. In 1961 he asked for political asylum in Paris, in 1962 he was engaged by the Royal Ballet of London, and he triumphed as Margot Fonteyn’s dancing partner. In 1983 he was appointed director of the ballet of the Paris Opéra Garnier.
Dmitri Panin (Moscow 1911 – Paris 1987). Tomb 8120, plan IV. Physician. He was arrested in 1940, but already released in 1955, due to lack of evidence. He spent four years in prison with Solzhenitsyn, who describes him as Sologdin in his In the first circle (1968). He escaped in 1972 to Paris. His reminiscences are embedded in his Mémoires de Sologdine.
Polycarpe Pavlov (1885-1974) and Vera Grech (1893-1974). Tomb 8135, plan IV. Actors of the Artistical Theatre of Moscow (MXT). They opened a school for dramatic art in Paris.
Zinovi Peshkov (Nizhni-Novgorod 1884 – Paris 1966). Tomb 5740, plan III. General in the French army. Elder brother of the bolshevik Yakov Sverdlov, who got this name from his godfather Maxim Gorki. Peshkov enlisted in 1914 in the Foreign Legion, and in 1915 he lost an arm. Chargé d’affairs of Kolchak, later of Denikin. Became French citizen in 1923, and was sent to Morocco as an officer in the Foreign Legion. From 1942 to 1950 he was the Military Attaché of France in Southern Africa, China and Japan.
Antoine Pevsner (Orel 1886 – Paris 1962). Tomb 5860, plan III. Painter and sculptor, brother of Naum Gabo. Studied in the academies of arts of Kiev and St. Petersburg. In Paris he came in touch with cubists and futurists, who increasingly influenced his work. Used materials like glass, steel-wire, iron and plastic, and generally is considered an important representative of constructivism.
Serge Poliakoff (1901-1945). Tomb 3079, plan V. Cousin of Dmitri Poliakoff, interpreter of Russian gipsy songs. Painter, at first of nudes and landscapes. Settled down in 1937 in Paris, where he came in touch with people like Kandinsky and Delaunay, who influenced him a lot. In 1938 he made his first abstract work, which was characterized by simple, geometric forms, harmonic, warm colors and a plastic, rough style of painting, which revealed an enormous emotionality.
Boris Poplavsky (Moscow 1903 – Paris 1935). Tomb 1447, plan I. Poet, o.d.’d on drugs. He escaped in 1919 to Paris, where he lived under miserable circumstances. Khodassevich considered him the most promising Russian poet of his era. He was burried in the cemetery of Ivry, and in 1948 his mortal remains were transferred to Sainte- Geneviève-des-Bois.
Olga Preobrazhenskaya (1871-1962). Tomb 2469, plan II. Prima-ballerina of the Imperial Theatres. Performed in 1909 in Camille Saint-Saëns’ ballet Javotte, in the Opéra of Paris. Escaped in 1921 to Paris, where she opened a school of dance, which soon became famous.
Alexis Mikhaïlovich Remizov (Moscow 1877 – Paris 1957). Tomb 5466, plan V. Writer of legends and novels. Escaped in 1921 to Berlin, and emigrated to Paris in 1923. Remizov’s works are extremely varied, and his style of writing is refined. He also wrote poems.
Grand Duke André Vladimirovich Romanoff (Tsarskoe Selo 1879 – Paris 1956). Tomb 3103, plan V. Major- General of the Russian Imperial army, grandson of Alexander II, cousin of Nicholas II. In the same tomb is resting his spouse Maria Feliksovna, née Mathilde Kshessinskaya (Peterhof 1872 – Paris 1971). For a long time Kshessinskaya was the sweetheart of Nicholas II, when she was a prima-ballerina in the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. In 1908 and 1909 she performed in the ballet Coppélia of Léo Delibes, in the Opéra of Paris. She was the mistress of Grand Duke Serge Mikhaïlovich Romanoff, who was murdered in 1918, and in 1921 she married Grand Duke André Vladimirovich. The marriage was celebrated in Cannes, and in 1935 her brother-in-law Kiril Vladimirovich Romanoff gave her the title `Princess Romanovsky-Krassinsky’. In 1929 she opened a school of dance in Paris.
Grand Duke Gavril Constantinovich Romanoff (Pavlovsk 1887 – Paris 1955). Tomb 2502, plan VI. Great-grandson of Nicholas I. Major in the Guards regiment of Hussars. In 1939 he was appointed Grand Duke by Vladimir Kirilovich Romanoff.
Zinaida Serebriakov (1884-1967). Tomb 6970, plan III. Painter of landscapes and village scenes.
Serge Sharshun (Orenburg 1888 – Paris 1975). Tomb 8244, plan IV. Painter, escaped in 1912 to Paris.
Ivan Shmelev (Moscow 1873 – Paris 1950). Tomb 277, plan II. Writer. Escaped in 1922 to Paris.
Constantin Somov (St. Petersburg 1869 – Paris 1939). Tomb 119, plan II. Painter of portraits and landscapes. His work is exhibitioned in the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg and the Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow.
Peter Spassky (1850-1968). Tomb 5407, plan V. From 1927 to 1947 choirmaster of the Russian-Orthodox church in Boulogne-Billancourt, and from 1947 to 1968 leader of the chorus of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris.
Dmitri Stelletsky (1875-1947). Tomb 2065, plan I. Iconographer, painter, sculptor and illustrator of Russian legends. He studied in the academy of arts of St. Petersburg and his icons are to be seen in several Russian- Orthodox churches in France.
Pierre Struve (Perm 1870 – Paris 1944). Tomb 3121, plan II. Economist, went to law school in St. Petersburg. Was member of the second Duma and from 1909 leader of the right wing of the CaDet Party. He was a member of the Vrangel administration and in the early twenties he escaped to Prague, and successively to Paris.
Viktor Taranovsky (1864-1937). Tomb 2508, plan IV. General and from 1916 to 1918 commander of the Russian Expeditionary troops on the Macedonian front.
André Tarkovsky (Zavroe 1932 – Paris 1986). Tomb 7255, plan III. Film director and son of the poet Arseni Alexandrovich Tarkovsky.
Teffi (Nadezhda Buchinsky, née Lokhvitsky) (1875-1952). Tomb 3059, plan II. Writer of humoristic stories. Her book La petite ville is about the Russian emigrants in Paris.
Boris Zayitsev (Orel 1881 – Paris 1972). Tomb 6109, plan III. Writer. Escaped in 1922 and became chairman of the Union of Russian Writers and Journalists in Paris. He wrote novels and the biographies of Zhukovsky, Chekhov and Turgenyev.
The Reverend Father Vasili Zenkovsky (1881-1962). Tomb 3121, plan II. After he had worked in Kiev, Belgrade and Prague, he became professor in the Russian-Orthodox Institute of Paris. From 1923 until his death he was chairman of the ACER. In 1945 he was ordained priest. Author of l’Histoire de la philosophie russe. He is resting in the same grave as Pierre Struve.
In this cemetery (my favorite of all) is a memorial stone in honour to Princess Vera (Vicky) Obolensky, née Makarov (Moscow 1911 – Berlin 1944). She was in the French resistance, was arrested by the Germans on December 17, 1943, and shot on August 4, 1944.
Cimetière de Samois-sur-Seine (Seine-et-Marne):
Prince Nicholas Troubetzkoy (1807-1874). The Prince was a Catholic and payed for the construction of the church of Samois. Turgenyev wrote on account of his death, `That’s all for the poor Prince Troubetzkoy. He went ahead to see if it’s true what the Jesuits have told him about heaven.’
Prince Nicholas Orlov (1827-1885). Major-General, aide-de- camp to the Tsar, Ambassador of Russia in Brussels, London and Paris.
Cimetière de Thiais (Val-de-Marne):
Leon Sedov (1906-1938). 22nd division, row 13, tomb 20. Son of Lev Trotsky. Every year at August 20 the Trotskyites come to visit this tomb, to commemorate the murder on Trotsky, and every year they sing the International. Evgeni Zamiatin (1884-1937). 21st division, row 5, tomb 56. Writer of satire. His futuristic novel Nous autres, which was written in 1920 and was published in Paris in 1924, describes the totalitarian world of the future. He escaped in 1931, after he had written a letter to Stalin, in which he demanded the right for freedom of speech.
Cimetière d’Aix-les-Bains (Savoie):
Paul Nikolaevich Milyukov (Moscow 1859 – Aix-les-Bains 1943). Historian and politician. In 1894 expelled from the university of Moscow. From 1896 to 1899 he was professor in Sofia. Versatile authority on Russian history. Belonged to the founders of the Constitutional-Democratic (CaDet-) Party, which he headed from 1909. Was member of the third and fourth Duma and in 1917 Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government. He escaped in 1920 and from 1921 to 1940 he was editor-in-chief of the Russian emigrants’ paper Posledniya Novosti.
Cimetière de Chabris (Indre):
Michael Andreevich Ossorgin (Ilin) (Perm 1878 – Chabris 1942). Writer, mainly of novels. After the Revolution of 1905 he escaped to Italy. In 1916 he returned to Russia, but in 1922 he was expelled from the country. He settled down in Paris, where he became member of the editorial staff of the Posledniya Novosti.
Cimetière de Salbris (Loir-et-Chèr):
Nicholas Sokolov (1882-1924). Sokolov worked for the Whites at the Court of Omsk, and towards the end of 1918 he was ordered to investigate the murder of the Imperial family. On the cross which adorns his tomb, one can read the Russian words for `Your truth is the eternal truth’. This however is considered rather doubtful.
Cimetière du Grand-Jas, Cannes:
Charles Fabergé (St. Petersburg 1846 – Lausanne 1920). Jeweler and goldsmith of the Imperial Court. In 1870 Pierre succeeded his father Gustave, who in 1842 had opened a jeweler’s store in St. Petersburg. He was famous for his preciousness, and every year at Easter he made a beautiful egg for Alexander III (and later for Nicholas II), which the Tsar presented to the Tsaritsa. His company had branches in Moscow, Odessa, Kiev and London. In the same tomb is resting his wife Avgusta (Tsarskoe Selo 1852 – Cannes 1925).
Olga Ruiz Picasso, née Khoklova (1891-1955). Dancer with Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, first spouse of Pablo Picasso. In 1935 they separated, without legally being divorced. She is burried with her grandson Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1949-1973).
Russian-Orthodox church Saint-Michel-Archange, 40 Boulevard Alexandre III, Cannes:
In the crypt are the mortal remains of the following persons:
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Romanoff (St. Petersburg 1856 – Cap d’Antibes 1929). Grandson of Nicholas I, Cavalry General, from 1914 to 1915 commander- in-chief of the Russian army, from 1915 to 1917 Viceroy of the Caucasus. The White emigrants considered him their head of state, and he was respected by anyone. Marshall Pétain attended the funeral on behalf of the French government.
His spouse, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna (Cetinjé 1866 – Cap d’Antibes 1935). Daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro. She was one of the two Montenegran princesses who accompanied Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna, and introduced her to occultism.
Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich Romanoff (St. Petersburg 1864 – Cap d’Antibes 1931). Lieutenant-General, aide-de- camp to Nicholas II, brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich.
His spouse, Grand Duchess Militsa Nikolaevna (Cetinjé 1866 – Alexandria 1951). Twin sister of Anastasia Nikolaevna, the other Montenegran princess.
Cimetière de Caucase, 78 Avenue de Sainte-Marguerite, Nice:
Grigori Viktorovich (Georges) Adamovich (1894-1971). Poet and critic. Studied history in the university of St. Petersburg. Escaped in 1922 to Paris.
Princess Nina Bagration-Moukhransky (1882-1972). Lady in waiting to the Tsaritsa.
Vladimir Bezobrazov (1857-1932). Cavalry general, aide-de-camp to the Tsar.
Adam Cwiecinsky (1827-1881). General and aide-de-camp to Alexander II.
Michael Grulev (1857-1943). Lieutenant-General and author of Carnets d’un général juif, in which he sharply criticized the Imperial Army.
Nina Ivanov-Lutzevin (1888-1986). Lady in waiting to the Tsaritsa.
Nicholas Yudenich (Moscow 1862 – Saint-Laurent-du-Var 1933). Infantry general. From 1914 to 1917 commander of the Russian army on the Caucasian front. In October 1919 he was commander of the North Western White Army, and with 13,000 men he was about to capture St. Petersburg, when he was defeated by Trotsky’s crack troops of the Red Army. He withdrew, to reinforce his troops, but abandoned the plan of a second attack and left for France.
Princess Catharina Yurevsky, née Princess Dolgorouky (Moscow 1847 – Nice 1922). Second wife of Alexander II. When she was his mistress, she had three children: Grigori (1872), Olga (1873) and Catharina (1880). On July 18, 1880, a month after his wife Maria Alexandrovna had passed away, Alexander and Princess Catharina Dolgoroukaya married in St.-Petersburg, and in December 1880 she became, by virtue of an ukase, the title `Princess Yurevsky’. After the murder of her husband the Princess withdrew in France.
Serge Kanshin (1863-1944). Last Russian consul in Nice, from 1906 to 1917.
Arkadi Kostin (1863-1953). Minister and Privy Councillor of Nicholas II.
Vladimir Lazarevsky (Kiev 1897 – Nice 1953). Journalist. Finished law school in Prague and in Paris he founded the paper La Pensée russe.
Serge Lyubimov (1851-1918). Father confessor to Princess Olga von Württemberg, successively, from 1887 to 1918, archpriest of the church Saint-Nicolas-et-Sainte-Alexandra in Nice. Father Lyubimov is burried in the sanctuarium of the Saint-Nicholas Chapel, in the middle of the cemetery.
Serge Sazonov (Moscow 1860 – Nice 1927). From 1910 to 1916 Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1914 he tried to talk the Tsar into announcing a mobilisation, to show loyalty to Serbia. Soon afterwards World War I was a fact.
Princess Elena of Serbia (Reka 1884 – Nice 1962). Daughter of King Peter I of Serbia, spouse of Grand Duke Ivan Constantinovich Romanoff, who in July 1918 was murdered by the Cheka.
Dmitri Shcherbatov (Moscow 1857 – Nice 1932). Cavalry general, aide-de-camp to the Tsar.
General Michael Svekhin (Ekaterinoslav 1876 – Nice 1976). Grand-cousin of Sophie Svechin. From 1915 he was commander of the Guards Cuirassiers of Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. In 1917 he was promoted Divisional General, and in 1918 he joined the Don Cossacks of the White Army. In 1925 he escaped to France.
Cimetière de Roquebrune-Cap Martin:
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna Romanoff (St. Petersburg 1875 – Hampton Court 1960). Daughter of Alexander III, sister of Nicholas II.
Her husband Grand Duke Alexander (Sandro) Mikhaïlovich Romanoff (Tiflis 1866 – Roquebrune 1933). Lifetime friend of Nicholas II. Vice-Admiral, Minister of the Merchant Navy, and in 1917 aide-de-camp to the Tsar.
Cimetière de Saint-Paul-de-Vence:
Marc Chagall (Vitebsk 1887 – Saint-Paul-de-Vence 1985). Painter who became very popular by his warm colours and emotionality. Escaped in 1922 to Paris, where he had lived from 1910 to 1914. After World War II he became many official assignments In 1973 the Chagall Museum was opened in Cimiez (Nice).
Unlike the French the Americans are not very keen on hordes of tourists, who infest cemeteries, and the relatives of Russian celebrities are very much set on the privacy of the last resting place of their beloved ones. I respect this wish, and that’s why I only mention two cemeteries where Russian aristocrats, artists and musicians are burried:
Roslyn Cemetery, Glen Cove Road (on the corner of Southern Boulevard), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. The cemetery was founded in 1860, and has no separate section for Russian deceased. Many Russian-Orthodox crosses are scattered all over the cemetery. Since the late eighties one can find the graves of several Russian princes and countesses in the front of the cemetery, on the side of Glen Cove Road, left from the main driveway. A while ago a new terrain was opened in the back of the cemetery, where a special section for Russian deceased will be created.
Novo Diveevo Cemetery, Smith Road, Spring Valley, New York.This cemetery is found behind the monastery and Russian old people’s home of the same name. Since the thirties many Russian aristocrats have found their last resting place here.